Most new option traders start by selling covered calls. It is an income producing strategy where you sell a call option on a stock that you own to collect the option premium. However, the premium comes with an obligation, if the call option you sold is exercised by the buyer, you may be obligated to sell your shares of the underlying stock.
1. Consider the ex-dividend date
A common mistake to avoid is selling a covered call near the ex-dividend date of a stock that you own. Sometimes investors will come in to buy a stock a few days before the dividend date causing the stock value to briefly go up. This could make it very profitable for the buyer of the call option to force you to sell and collect the dividend payment. Not only do you lose the dividend but your broker’s fee to sell your shares will be much higher than normal.
For example; Royal Dutch Shell (RDS.b) has an ex–dividend of May 17th and pays $0.94 per share every quarter. So if you sold a May 19th call option, your shares could be called away early if the call option is in the money.
2. Open interest or liquidity
Sometimes there is a wide spread between the bid and ask price of an option based on trading volume or the amount of open interest. The open interest will tell you the total number of option contracts that haven’t been exercised or assigned. Many options on Canadian stocks are illiquid and the bid-ask spread can be really extensive.
For example; Shopify (shop) trades on the Canadian exchange at $128. 14 and $93.58 on the U.S. stock exchange. If you wanted to sell a cash secured put option June 125 strike price the bid is $4.50 and ask is $5.75 but the open interest is zero contracts. However, the June 90 put option on the U.S. exchange has an open interest of 873 contracts and the bid is $3.10 and ask is 3.30 making it much easier to trade.
3. Implied volatility can increase when earnings are released
Implied volatility represents the expected price action of the stock over the life of the option. As expectations change, or as the demand for the option increases, implied volatility will also rise. Earnings expectations can influence the option premiums that expire when companies release their earnings.
For example; Ulta Beauty (ulta) is currently trading around $297.55 and is reporting their earnings on May 25th. See the weekly at the money call and put options below:
|May 19 $297.50||$2.45||$2.85||141|
|May 26 $297.50||$8.90||$10.60||87|
|June 2 $297.50||$10.30||$11.80||0|
|June 9 $297.50||$10.80||$12.30||2|
|May 19 $297.50||$2.45||$2.80||99|
|May 26 $297.50||$8.90||$10.50||13|
|June 2 $297.50||$10.40||$11.90||1|
|June 9 $297.50||$10.70||$12.00||0|
Without the change in implied volatility the May 26 calls and puts options bid-ask price would have been in the $4.90 to $5.60 range but earnings expectations have increased the value of these options. Take note of the wider bid-ask spread on the June 9 and 16 call and put options which have little or no open interest contracts.
Before you buy or sell options you should always check for the ex-dividend date and earnings release date. Keep a close eye on the number of open interest contracts, a large bid-ask spread could turn a profitable trade into a loser.