A fund’s name might seem like a good starting point for gaining an initial understanding of how it is constructed. Unfortunately, names turn out to offer little help for evaluating funds. There is simply no universally accepted system in use by ETF providers and research to classify funds. For example “Infrastructure” would seem to have something to do with the amenities, roads and power supplies needed to operate society.
Names can be deceiving! To illustrate, I went to one of my favorite ETF provider’s web site to look under the hood. I was looking to find some discrepancies. It took some time but the geographic allocation in the fact sheet on the BMO Global Infrastructure Index ETF (ZGI) wasn’t global at all but had the majority of their holdings in North America.
- 66.02% United States
- 25.16% Canada
- 6.71% United Kingdom
- 1.56% Mexico
- 0.56% Brazil
The top ten holdings also have a lot of pipeline companies who pay construction companies to build the actual infrastructure.
- Enbridge 10.07%
- American Tower Corp 8.82%
- National Grid Plc 6.71%
- TransCanada Corp 6.68%
- Crown Castle Intl Corp 6.07%
- Kinder Morgan 5.87%
- P G & E Corp 5.17%
- Sempra Energy 4.25%
- Williams Cos 96%
- Edison International 3.82%
It takes years for pipeline companies to benefit from any new capacity to come on line. On the other hand, companies who specialize in construction & engineering like SNC-Lavalin or Aecon would see immediate revenue growth. I would recommend looking for another infrastructure ETF that had more global exposure with holdings of construction & engineering type companies.
Another example is the BMO S&P/TSX Equal Weight Industrials Index ETF (ZIN) which has a small discrepancy. The fact sheet says it has 26 industrial holdings but two of those holdings include airlines. (Air Canada 5.46% & Westjet 4.13%) Now both of these companies buy industrial products but they specialize in transportation.
Here are some key steps all investors should take when evaluating ETFs:
- First, decide if you are going to be a do-it-yourself investor or work with an advisor. As their name suggests, ETFs are traded on exchanges, so they can be bought and sold like stocks through a discount brokerage.
- Make sure you understand the index underlying the ETF you are considering. Focus on how the index is constructed, what it tracks and how long it has been around. A longer record will reveal how the index responded to different market conditions.
- Check the fund’s fact sheet, are the underlying holdings and geographic allocation accurate? How does the exchanged traded fund compare with similar funds from other providers?
- Avoid ultra-short and leveraged ETFs, leave those to professional traders.
Ultimately, the proper implementation of ETFs in a portfolio requires, like all investment decisions, due diligence, caution and persistence. ETFs can offer many attractive features but their long-term value depends on how well they fit into an individual’s portfolio.
To evaluate an appropriate fit, investors have to be prepared to look under the hood.